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12839  THE TECHNO CLUB [ TECHNOWORLDINC.COM ] / Web Design / Graphics Design/ Animation / How search engine works? on: February 19, 2007, 02:44:46 PM
Traffic Building
How Search Engine Works?

Most searh engines have three parts:

a crawler
an index
and a search interface

Let's look at each part individually to get a better understanding of them. Each part has its own role to play in the process, with all parts working together to make searches possiple.

1. The Crawler:

Also known as a "spider" or "bot", this part of the search engine wanders the web, following links and picking up information for its database. Crawlers do most of their work at times of the day when searh engines are less busy, but they typically visit frequently updated pages more often. This is something to keep in mind when you are working on your pages.

Your site's title and text(your content) are the most important thing to a crawler. The fastest way to raise your site's search engine ranking for specific key words is to implement them into your title and your content.

2. The index:

Once the crawler has collected all that text, it is then stored and indexed. This allows people searching for key words and phrases to get results relating to what they were searching for - their search results. Most sites will incorporate rating systems such as Google Page Rank or Alexa Rankings in positioning your site. These ratings are used attempt to ensure that sites that are important receive more traffic than unimportant sites.

To see this in action, go to a search engine and type in a word. You'll see some text on the page saying something like "results 1-10 of 1,234,000". This means that the search engine's index contains 1,234,000 pages it believes are related to the word you typed. If you wanted to, you could look through all these pages to find the information you're looking for.

In order to understand rating systems more thoroughly consider your own site. When you place links on your site you generally do so to increase your users understanding of the content of your site.

If every site in a particular field links to a particular site, this site is probably very important to that field and should, therefore, be listed highly in the lists of search engine results. This is the basic ideology of Google Page Ranks.

Consider again, a site that receives a great deal of traffic, it probably has some information or service that is very important to its users. Alexa ratings attempt to estimate the amount of traffic that a particular site gets and compare it to the amount of traffic that other sites get. The closer that a site is to the most trafficed site on the internet, the more likely it is to have important content if it is relevant to search query.

3. The Interface:

Search engines provide a public intrface for users who want to find information on the web. They can type the word or phrase they're searching for, and the interface will run an algorithm to find the pages relevant to their search and display them.

These algorithms are an important part of the SEO(Search Engine Optimization) business. You'll notice when the algorithms change, the rankings of your website will change with them. No two search engines have the same algorithms. They all work differently, with their unique features, and they will all respond to your website in their own way.

The most popular search engines today include Google, Yahoo, MSN, Alltheweb, and AskJeeves.

Hassan Sarsour
make easy money online

Article Source:
12840  THE TECHNO CLUB [ TECHNOWORLDINC.COM ] / Online Jobs / Emailing for Dollars on: February 19, 2007, 02:30:19 PM
Email Marketing
Emailing for Dollars

Email marketing, that is, permission-based email marketing, is providing new hope for small business owners who have obvious disdain for traditional forms of advertising. This powerful tool is effective, immediate, targeted and inexpensive. Email campaigns build relationships and foster customer loyalty, two elements sorely missing in much of today's marketplace.

Prospective customers like email marketing too. An email study undertaken by Doubleclick uncovered some surprising consumer preferences:

54% said they would like email to replace telemarketing
45% said they would like email to replace in-person sales calls
40% said they would like email to replace direct mail
33% said they would like email to replace retail coupons

The effectiveness of email is more predictable than other forms of advertising. Another Doubleclick survey found that 78% of online shoppers purchased an item because of a link they clicked on in an email message.
Email is now. If you have a special that you want to promote today, you literally can do so with a mouse click and studies show that nearly 90% of your recipients will make a buying decision within 48 hours!

You can segment your email list by age and gender demographics and by interests in certain types of products. No other form of advertising allows for such a precise targeting.

Email is much less expensive than any other form of advertising. Compare the costs of mailing lists, paper, postage, graphic art work, TV or Radio production, and you'll be astounded.

The fine-points of setting up an email campaign are best left to a professional. After the initial set-up which includes, email collection, e-newsletter composition, content selection, and email design and distribution, you may well be able to put together future mailings on your own.

Email marketing will continue to be a valuable tool for small business owners. Those who use it will win the battle for their prospects' attention, drive new revenue and become customer favorites. Those that don't?

Brian Grinonneau is the general manager of McMann & Tate Advertising, an agency that insists its clients tell their story like it has never been told before.

Article Source:
12841  THE TECHNO CLUB [ TECHNOWORLDINC.COM ] / Web Design / Graphics Design/ Animation / Traffic Buiding - Do we need reciprocal and non-reciprocal links? on: February 19, 2007, 02:19:20 PM
Traffic Building
Non Reciprocal and Reciprocal Links - Do We Need Them?

Actually, the answer is yes........and no. What is a reciprocal link? It is a link to a page that is linked back to ours. Of course, a non reciprocal link is a link from a page that we are not directly linked to.

Page rank is associated in some ways to linking. You see, the more links that point to our pages, the more important Google tm or other search engines think our page is. Non reciprocal links to our page (not on our page) add a lot more weight than reciprocal links. Search engines think that if a page is willing to link to ours and not get a link back, then our page must be important. They see it as a recommendation. But that?s not always true. The importance of the pages that link to ours is also accounted for. You can get 100 free hosting pages of your own and then link them to your special page with non reciprocal links and you wouldn't get any change in rank; it is a "Zero * Zero = Zero" equation.

You have to get links from pages that rank well. Then comes the other side of the question. Can I have any page link mine? And the answer is NO. Search engines think of the web as a neighborhood. If you are linked to a good neighborhood then you must be good. If you are linked to a bad "hood" then you must be bad and they rank you.
So linking to pages with illegal content such as MP3's, Warez, Hackers, etc. will soon get you a bad ranking. And probably your submission to the directories will not be accepted.

The other point of linking is ANCHOR TEXT. Anchor text is the text of the hyperlink. Read this two examples:

Example 1

Example 2
Free tools for webmasters

You inmediately see the difference. Although both links can point to the same page the way they are phrased is different. Not only does this make a difference in the way people read the link or the way the link gets their attention, but also when search engines "see" the link, they associate this words with your site and you climb ranks in those Keywords for any associated searchs.

Now you get the point?

Your links should have good anchor text that is related to the keywords that you want to exploit.

But search engines also see KEYWORD SPAM when they find too many links with the same phrasing beacuse it doesn't seem natural They think that it is impossible that all webmasters would write the same words when linking your page. That means that you have to use slightly different phrases each time you get links to your page.

Last but not least, search engines do not see words inside pictures so image links and banners do not get you any ranking for any keyword.

Francisco Santander

Free webmaster tools

Article Source:
12842  THE TECHNO CLUB [ TECHNOWORLDINC.COM ] / Miscellaneous / Importance of Debt Consolidation on: February 19, 2007, 02:15:26 PM
The Importance of Debt Consolidation

It is no secret that more and more consumers today are carrying greater and greater levels of personal debt. With spending rising faster than income levels, it is easy to see how quickly this situation can get out of control, and that is where a solid debt consolidation program comes into play.

One of the most attractive things about debt consolidation programs is that they allow consumers to quickly get out from under their debt loads, and to pay off those loans with lower interest rates. The idea behind debt consolidation loans is to pay off high interest debt, like credit cards, using a lower interest loan. The lower interest rate allows the consumer to pay off more of the balance faster, without an increase in the required monthly payment.

There are many different kinds of debt consolidation loans on the market, of course, and it is important to choose the right one for your needs. Some debt consolidation loans will take the form of home equity loans or home equity lines of credit, and they can be a good choice, but only for the well disciplined homeowner.
That is because taking unsecured debt, such as credit cards, and securing it with the most valuable asset you own, your home, can be a risky strategy. If you feel that you could slip up and run up additional debt, it may be better to choose another way to consolidate your high interest debt.

There are fortunately a number of personal loans that can be used to for debt consolidation. The interest rate each consumer can achieve on such debt consolidation loans will of course vary along with his or her credit score, so it is important to shop around for the best deal possible. Getting several different quotes, from several different lenders, is the best way to ensure getting a deal you can live with.

Of course paying off existing high interest credit card debt and other loans is only half of the debt consolidation picture. The other side of the coin is just as important, and it involves learning to spend wisely and leaning to use credit properly. There are no courses in proper money management and credit usage, and most of us end up learning as we go along. It is important to exercise a combination of good budgeting, common sense and proper planning to make sure your debt consolidation plan stays on track.

Brooke Sikula is a freelance writer based in Ventura, CA and writes on a wide range of topics from home improvement to credit repair and everything in between. She is a regular contributor to and For more information and advice on credit issues, check out

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12843  THE TECHNO CLUB [ TECHNOWORLDINC.COM ] / Online Jobs / 7 Ways To Optimize Adsense Legally on: February 19, 2007, 02:10:25 PM
Thanks to adsense, blogs, rss feeds and their listings -- not to mention an arsenal of free types of advertising -- it's possible to make a very good income without spending a penny and with minimal effort. The trick is to optimize for it.

PLEASE NOTE: Though adsense may have originated with Google's system, there are many other adsense-type programs available, all of which are as viable -- some even more so -- as theirs. The information included here applies to most of them.

While everyone else is busy optimizing for search engines, by optimizing for adsense, a site can feasibly pull enough traffic that simply clicks on the ads to forget about other forms of sales.

However, bear in mind that most adsense TOS agreements prevent any unfair or "fraudulent" clicking, even so much as a note saying, "click here to support this site," which risks banishment by most adsense companies. This, of course, is to protect those adwords customers who pay to have their ads displayed. It is they who are robbed (not the companies) when an ad is clicked irresponsibly. Furthermore Google, for one, can track clicks effectively enough to detect any artificial or irresponsible clicking will garner any income received this way.

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With that in mind, by understanding how adsense-type programs work, one can optimize a page, legally, to create a substantial income. And while guidelines are designed primarily focused on adsense, many of these strategies will increase a sites' general revenue as well.

The first step is to design a site around the top searches. There are various tools (keyword selectors and zeitgeist, for example) that help gather this information. Of course, there is also the "niche marketing" school of thought, i.e., to find a smaller group that has less page-per-click competition. In this case, the ideal is to find a large audience-small page ratio. But after more than a year of marketers scouring the web for them, finding one is rare and searching for one can take a LOT of time. Not hours or days, but weeks or months.

Lists of these can be found simply by searching the internet. Of course combining the highest paying adsense keywords with Top Searches may make a very strange mix. Afterall, the top search (at the time of this writing) is Britney Spears while the top-paying words relate to mesothelioma and asbestos cancer. So, unless Britney Spears speaks out on mesothelioma, there's little chance these could be combined legally*. But, by looking down the lists there are more feasible combinations. The main thing to understand is it's only a combination of the two (high-paying keywords & top searches) that will bring enough traffic to garner any measurable LEGAL income from adsense.

Placing the ads prominently on the site is a no-brainer, though some marketers still tend to hide them toward the bottom of the site. Another TOS factor, too, is a content-to-ad ratio that adsense programs used to insist on, but seem to be slipping. Generally the policy was no more than two banner ads per page though many sites that end up at the top of searches seem to flaunt this rule. But who knows how long they last, too. Traditionally, putting one banner across the top, just below the title, and one "skyscraper" down one side, with content in the middle is the best.

One pase allows for 2 ads, but more ads can be placed on each additional page on the site. For those lacking ideas for additional pages, the simplest page would be a separate contact page, as well as an "about us" or testimonial page, all of which are viable additions.

Incidently, it's ironic that so many marketers create mile-long splash pages rather than a group of pages and never add one adsense ad to them. As if, by doing this, it will garner more sales, when the truth is, they sacrifice as much as gain because these pages are rarely indexed and annoy visitors as many as they attract, simply because of their set up. Understand this: adsense is a way to profit from EXIT traffic, something that WILL occur at one point or another, no matter how wonderful the page.

Some prefer the adsense to blend into their site, almost hiding it from visitors. But this diminishes its effectiveness. Rather, by highlighting it, visitors will be more aware of it, allowing it to stand out. Of course, we'd all prefer our visitors to stay at OUR site, buy OUR product, etc. But the fact is, many won't. Isn't it better to gain something from their departure?

This feature is only available from some of the larger adsense programs. If it is available, placing it at the bottom of a page offers the visitor the convenience of doing a search without having to first go to the SE. Of course, many SEs and browsers offer toolbars that diminish the effectiveness of this. But adding it will create another exit point that is to your advantage-- and seems like a service, too.

Some adsense programs offer a "block competition" option, one in which specific sites may be barred. However, to believe it's possible to effectively block ALL your competition is naive. Though it may at first seem outrageious to help advertise for the competition, again, at least one will gain from their advertisement (and, for those who need payback remember: the competition is paying you).

Each of these strategies increase a site's adsense revenue. By using all of them, the adsense ads will create a steady revenue stream which will increase with the site's traffic stream.--mo

*Also, this combination uses Google's rates, which may vary in other adsense programs.

Adsense CAN generate a healthy income, with little or no budget, if you understand how to use it.

Marige O'Brien works as a writer, web designer and Internet Marketer. Visit her Website, Tracker Mo's Den for her latest recommendations in i-marketing tools and biz opps. Sign up for her own 100% original newsletter, Tracker Mo's Report.
12844  THE TECHNO CLUB [ TECHNOWORLDINC.COM ] / Miscellaneous / Breast cancer causes on: February 19, 2007, 10:50:30 AM
Fourteen Simple Things You Can Do To Reduce Your Risk for Breast Cancer

As a retired diagnostic radiologist who read way too many mammograms I am excited because I finally have a path to try to connect to so many women who are having and have had mammograms.I was always chagrined since we would really torture and radiate many breasts but it was as if these breasts were not connected to a human type person. It bothered me that so many mammography programs make no effort at all to educate their clientele about what "they can do" to reduce their risks of breast cancer. I would suggest to the directors of these programs that we try to educate the patients and their response was 100% predictable. They would always first deny the relationship between diet and breast cancer and then add that their patients would not listen anyway.
01. Increase your consumption of fresh, organic fruits and vegetables.

Increasing your consumption of fresh organic fruits and vegetables has been shown to reduce the risk for breast cancer.

"There is strong evidence from epidemiologic studies that eating more fruits and vegetables decreases a woman's risk of developing breast cancer. This conclusion is strengthened by the similar results obtained from animal studies and experiments using isolated breast cells." Quoted from the Cornell University Program on Breast Cancer and Environmental Risk Factors. They go on to recommend uncooked fruits and vegetables. The reason for this is the heating damages some of the beneficial nutrients in the fruits and vegetables. Carrots, squash, sweet potatoes, broccoli and spinach top the list for being most protective. The Cornell study however does not stress the fact that these need to be "organic." Non-organic commercial fruits and vegetables besides being largely nutritionally bereft are also heavily sprayed with a wide variety of toxins.

02. Avoid using any pesticides or chemical sprays in your home. Try to avoid new carpet.

The relationship between pesticides and other toxic chemicals such as benzene and toluene and cancer has long been established. There are better ways to rid your house of undesired guests than using chemical sprays. It sounds difficult but even if you can't get rid of all your pests you will live a longer and healthier life if you refrain from spraying. New carpet is another source of extremely toxic chemicals that "off gas" for at least a year or so after it is installed. Try to avoid new carpet especially in children's rooms.

03. Avoid drinking tap water.

Avoid tap water unless you live either in Lake Tahoe or Ithaca, New York. The tap water here in Tucson is CAP water that travels in an open trough from the Colorado River. It is loaded with fungicides / herbicides not to mention all the chlorine added once it gets here. While bottled or filtered water may not be perfect,you will considerably reduce your risk for any cancer by avoiding most tap water.

04. Decrease alcohol consumption.

There is a little debate about the link between alcohol consumption and breast cancer. However, the consumption of any simple sugars such as occur in most alcoholic beverages is associated with decreased T-cell mobility and thus some immune compromise. I still have an occasional beer but that is the only sugar I ingest. The general consensus however, is that it is best to reduce alcoholic beverage consumption as much as possible.
05. Start an exercise program.

Exercise has been proven in multiple studies to enhance the immune system. In order to be beneficial I would recommend thirty minutes at least three times a week. This should be exercise that elevates the heart rate and keeps it there for the thirty minutes. Running is good if you are not biomechanically impaired. Cycling and swimming are also good alternative and or exercise machines.

06. Increase consumption of organic whole grains and fiber.

Increased consumption of organic grains and fiber has been shown to reduce the risk of breast cancer.

07. Decrease meat, poultry and fish consumption.

Decrease your meat, fish, poultry and dairy consumption. Animal protein has been linked to all the big three killers in this country as well as osteoporosis. For more on this see the "China Study" by T. Colin Campbell and "Diet for a New America" by John Robbins. Stop smoking is really a "no brainer" here. Smoking is associatedwith a variety of cancers and there is now strong evidence that cancer of the breast is one of them.

08. Stop smoking.
09. Increase consumption of phytoestrogens from organic sources.
10. Decrease or stop consumption of processed foods.

Consume more phytoestrogens from soy products like tofu. "Women with diets rich in phytoestrogens also excrete more estrogens into their urine, and have lower blood estrogen levels. Some studies have shown that women with a diet rich in phytoestrogens have longer, and hence fewer, menstrual cycles. All of these factors may contribute to reduced breast cancer risk. " This quote from the Cornell University Program on Breast Cancer and Environmental Risk Factors. Please be sure that any soy products you consume are organic.

11. Avoid trans-fatty acids found in margarine and some vegetable shortenings.
12. Take two capsules of organic flaxseed oil daily or just add a teaspoon of flaxseed oil to your daily organic salad.
13. If you are pregnant definitely breast feed.
14. Gets lots of sunshine as breast cancer is less prevalent in areas where there is ample sunlight unobscured by fog or smog.

In conclusion there are many ways to reduce your chances of breast cancer. I have presented the above from a more subtle point of view. When my wife (now ex-wife) developed a lesion in her left breast back in 1995 we put her on an organic vegan diet. Soon we cut out all sugar and increased her running mileage. She still has her left breast although there is still some skin retraction. My good friend and world class flamenco dancer Carmen Heredia died in her early forties from breast cancer and its treatment. Best not to get breast cancer at all.

For more information on the relationship between diet, health and exercise please go to:

For more information on cooking and food preparation without animal products please go to:

Copyright J. Mericle M.D. 2004 All Rights Reserved is devoted to achieving optimal health and peak performance through diet and lifestyle change. Dr. Mericle brings together a unique blend of formal medical education, 29 marathons, 3 Hawaii Ironman competitions and a lot of practical real life experience.

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12845  THE TECHNO CLUB [ TECHNOWORLDINC.COM ] / Online Jobs / Email Marketing tips on: February 19, 2007, 10:48:27 AM
How to Write Effective E-Mails

Don't be afraid of writing

Writing anything is a chore of which many people are afraid.

If this is you, let me give you a hint that may make it easier. Do you have trouble speaking to a friend? Do you worry about grammar, spelling mistakes, the proper way to say things? No, you just come out and say what's on your mind. You are you, natural.

When you sit down to write an e-mail or any other type of message, simply imagine you are talking with a friend. Imagine that friend in your mind's eye?and say whatever it is that you want to say. You wouldn't have any trouble with that, would you? Rattle off the words as quickly as you can. This is what I do.

Imagine this were an e-mail to. See, I'm not writing an e-mail now, I am talking to you?and only to you. The fact that I use a keyboard and not my mouth is simply because you are not here with me. The fact that other people are reading this piece doesn't matter. As you read it, I am talking to you alone. I am trying to involve you, to make you think about you. Why should you care about other people who are reading this same message?

Use spell checker
Grammar, or spelling? That's why spell checkers were invented. Use yours after you have put what you want to say on the screen. It doesn't matter how many mistakes there were; once you correct them, no one else will ever know. Think I don't make mistakes? Huh! But I don't just rely on a spell checker; I read carefully what I have written. It's surprising how often I can spell a word correctly, but use the wrong word. Spell checkers don't catch that.

Short sentences and paragraphs

Try to remember to use short sentences and paragraphs, too. It helps people to understand you better. Let's face it, isn't that what you do when you are talking with a friend? The only difference between talking and writing is the way in which we communicate. We use the same words, although some people seem to think they should use longer words when they write. Wrong!

Change the subject and you should start a new paragraph.

It doesn't have to be long. In some ways, the shorter the better. Long paragraphs make gray pages and are more difficult for some people to read. White space on a page, as between paragraphs, helps that page to be more visually appealing.

Write as you speak

You don't even have to use complete sentences. 'Many may be complete' is not a complete sentence, but isn't that most likely what you would say in a conversation?

Enough of that; let's look at something even more important, now that we may have got you past the mental block of writing.
It's this: put your reader's wants and needs first. To some extent, we are all selfish. When we read something, we want to know what's in it for us: information, benefit, interest, pleasure, satisfaction, entertainment. Provide your e-mail recipients with a benefit of some kind ? a benefit for them, not you.

If you are trying to sell something (not a good idea on a first contact, before you have established trust), let the person see why what you are offering is a benefit to them, how it solves a problem, saves time, adds to the quality of their life, provides amusement. But don't just tell them "my purple widget will amuse you." Let your reader see that he or she will be amused.

"My purple widgets get people talking with each other and are great party icebreakers. Your guests will be absorbed in the games that can be played with them by two, four or 12 people. Warn your neighbors not to worry if they hear hysterical laughter coming from?."

Get the idea? Paint word pictures. You can do this in all your e-mails, personal and business, and your readers will appreciate hearing from you.

Speak of benefits, not features

But for business e-mails, make sure there is a definite benefit to your reader. When they finish your e-mail, you want them to be happy they opened it instead of clicking the kill button.

Sometimes, and you will often see this in advertising, you have to let your reader know that he or she needs your benefit. "Does your child play on the rug? Does she suck her thumb? Most toddlers do both, but have you seen a microscopic view of what lives in your rugs, no matter how well you vacuum them? Let me tell you about our patented virus and bacteria blaster that eliminates?."

Matthew Eigbe has over 25 years experience in consumer marketing and now focuses on network marketing using the internet. He is webmaster at , a site that explains how you can gain Financial Freedom by inviting people to have their own domain name.

Article Source:
12846  THE TECHNO CLUB [ TECHNOWORLDINC.COM ] / Online Jobs / Email Marketing: Email Types on: February 19, 2007, 10:46:34 AM
Email Marketing

Types of Email Newsletters (TEXT, HTML, PDF)
Does it sound like a foreign language? It's not and we really don't need to know all that much. But going over a few basic email formats is important so we'll start here.

Text emails are the most basic and everyone that receives email can read text.

PDF stands for "Portable Document Format" and it is commonly used on the web. PDF files are sent as attachments with the email message.

HTML, or Hypertext Markup Language, is a document format language used on the World Wide Web. It is expected that all emails will favor HTML-only in the near future based on current trends. Plus, they are preferred by readers.

Text Emails

Text emails are basically any email message sent with just plain text. No graphics, tables, or sophisticated anything. They're like watching black & white TV - pretty boring. But they can be effective in some cases.

It is common to send a "text" email message with an attachment such as a Microsoft Word document or a PDF file, but the reader must take an additional step to view your attachment (extra steps are not good) and they must have the appropriate software on their computer to read the file, which is not always the case. In addition, some email programs don't allow attachments to be downloaded or opened by the recipient (user choice).

Rather than sending text messages to some members and HTML to others, most email programs allow us to send both in one "multipart" message.

Sending both lets the recipient's email program decide which one to open (user preference default setting). If you don't see any graphics in the email you receive, your default may be set to text instead of HTML.

Text files have a ".txt" or ".doc" file extension
Given text email newsletters are on their way out, my recommendation for those just getting started is go with HTML. As HTML becomes the standard (we're almost there), you won't need to first learn text emailing, then start over in a year or so and learn HTML.

You're already ahead of the curve!
PDF or "Portable Document Format"

Basically, PDF files enable documents to be distributed on different computer systems while preserving the layout of a document. The documents look the same on everyone's computer whether it's a Dell computer or a MacIntosh computer.
The PDF file format was developed by Adobe Systems. PDF files are electronic documents that must be read with Adobe Acrobat software. You can download the software program from the web for free to "read" PDF files. It comes already loaded on most computers and more than likely, Adobe Acrobat "reader" is on your computer.
The naming convention for PDF files is Mydocument.pdf (the ".pdf" extension tells your computer to open the file using Adobe Acrobat software.
HTML - Hypertext Markup Language

HTML, or Hypertext Markup Language, is a document format language used on the World Wide Web. Web browsers read HTML code and so do most email programs. Using HTML allows you to bring together text, pictures, sounds, video, and links.

HTML files have ".htm" or ".html" file extensions
HTML files can be created using a simple text editor such as Microsoft Word or numerous others; many are available for free on the web

When you're looking at a web page, you can "right click" your mouse, click on "view source" (or "view page source") and you'll see the HTML programming code.
By the way, you don't need to know how to write HTML code any longer to create an email newsletter. But it definitely helps to understand the basics.

Greg Magnus is a freelance writer and owner of; a strategic marketing consulting company. He can be reached at: [email protected]

Article Source:
12847  THE TECHNO CLUB [ TECHNOWORLDINC.COM ] / Technical Terms / Forex trading explained on: February 19, 2007, 10:43:40 AM
Forex Trading Explained

Forex trading is becoming a favorite of currency traders. Forex trading can be confusing for someone new to currency trading. The market also draws many people in because it has so many advantages over other types of trades. Forex trading is very different from stock exchange markets also, which can mean great riches for those who take part in forex trading. Answering the question about what is forex trading can be broken down into the basic information about forex, how exchanges work and the advantages.

Forex or foreign exchange trading is basically the trading of the world's different currencies. Forex trading is done on the forex market. It is the world's largest trading market, even above the market of the New York stock exchange. The forex market, however, is not done at a centralized location. It is done on what is called the ?interbank?. This means trading is done on the telephone and through electronic networks. There are some main locations where trading is handled. These cities are located all around the world in countries like, Australia, Japan, England, United States and Germany. Forex trading can still be complex, like other trades.

Trading on the forex market involves staying current on currency exchange rates. The idea is to buy one currency while at the same time selling another currency. There are common currency combinations made to get the most out of a trade. These common exchanges are called a cross. There are a couple common terms that can help out a beginner in forex trading. The term ?pips? refers to the smallest amount a cross price quote can change. The term ?spread? refers to the price difference between the selling and buying price of a currency. While it is a process that takes time and energy to learn, forex trading can be very interesting because it offers many advantages over other types of trading.

The advantages of forex trading include many benefits that can not be found in other markets. With trade locations around the world and the major use of electronic transmissions, forex trading is open 24 hours a day. Other trading is limited by opening and closing times set based on where they are located in the world. The market is always busy. There are always buyers and sellers available. Currency is not going to fold overnight as it is a staple of life. While prices may go up and down, they do not fluctuate as much as stock prices. The forex market offers great stability over other markets.

Forex trading, like any form of trading, is a learnt art. It takes concentration and knowledge to do well on the forex market, but the advantages make it a much more inviting investment to many traders. Forex trading is the largest trading market simply because it offers much more to buyers and sellers than any other market can.

About the author: Stephen Kreutzer is a freelance publisher based in Cupertino, California. He publishes articles and reports in various ezines and provides Forex trading information on Forex Trading Method .

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12848  THE TECHNO CLUB [ TECHNOWORLDINC.COM ] / IELTS / IELTS: What should you expect? on: February 19, 2007, 10:37:01 AM
IELTS: What should you expect?

Effective IELTS Preparation Online?

What Should You Expect?

The IELTS exam is a difficult test but not an impossible one. It tests the English-language skills that students actually need to succeed in graduate programmes, and its assessments are rigorous and thorough.

That said, IELTS also expects each of the four tasks ? listening, reading, writing and speaking ? to be done in a particular way. It doesn?t necessarily specify what that way is. Consequently, many ILTS candidates with high English language skills score more poorly than they might if they knew the ?rules.?

The prime criterion of a good IELTS preparation course is that it trains candidates in the ways IELTS wants to see things done. Also, because IELTS often asks tricky questions, it is imperative that anyone who wishes to achieve a high score learn the tricks, how to spot them, and how to overcome them.

To decide whether a particular IELTS preparation course is fully adequate, look for specific guidance in the following aspects of each of the four tasks:


Check to see that the different demands of each of the four sections of the Listening Test is explained.

Then make sure that there is a good explanation of the question types that are most often encountered in Listening. Although any of the question types used in the Reading Test can also be used in Listening, the Listening Test is more likely to focus on form-filling, summary gap-filling, short-answer, true-and-false and fact-and-opinion questions. You should find instruction not only on those question types and how they work, but also on the indirect ways IELTS often asks questions, the way it relies on rewordings of things that are spoken ? so that you have to understand the same idea expressed in two different ways ? and words before and after key ideas that change the meaning of words supplied in questions.
There also should be tips on how to anticipate answers before you hear them.


Make sure that there is thorough explanations of all the IELTS question types, how they work, how IELTS sometimes asks them, and how you should answer them.

Check that there are at least three readings of appropriate IELTS length and difficulty, so you can learn to time yourself to read a passage and answer 13 questions in 20 minutes.

Look to see if there are useful tips on how to read quickly and with the single purpose of answering questions correctly. Normal advice about ?speed reading? is not enough, because the issue is not how fast you read or even how much of the passage you understand ? just how many questions you answer correctly.

Writing Task 1

Look to see that there are complete explanations about how to comprehend information presented in graphic formats such as graphs, bar charts, pie charts and diagrams. You must know how to ?read? all six types of graphic data correctly, or you will make inaccurate observations that are the fatal flaw of Writing Task 1.

Make sure there is a complete, sentence-by-sentence explanation of the report form. No matter what data you are asked to describe, the report format is the same and must be understood completely and thoroughly.

Check to see that all the vocabulary you need to describe information precisely is provided. There should be appropriate vocabulary lists, indications of how to combine words, and clear explanations of the different kinds of vocabulary different features of graphic information require.

Writing Task 2

Make sure that the IELTS preparation materials teach you what kind of essay? opinion, explanation, or discussion? is required to answer the IELTS question properly. Writing the wrong kind of essay, no matter how well, could cost you as much as a whole band point.Check that the formats for all three essay types are presented in full, with the names and functions of each of the sentence types precisely described. Following the expected format is key to writing a good essay.

Look to see that the preparation materials include ample exercises. Most students need practice to learn how to write the different kinds of sentences? from hooks to thesis statements to supporting sentences ? that work together to make a successful essay. Make sure that the course you take includes plenty of exercises so you can get the practice you need.


The Speaking task has three distinct parts. Make sure the nature and function of all three is clearly explained.

Check to see that there is clear explanation of the ?Long Turn,? the central section in which you must speak by yourself without any help from the examiner. There should be clear directions about how to give your answer to that critically important question shape and form.

Look to see that the preparation material gives you concrete tips on how to turn question-answering into real communication and natural conversation.

Make sure that there are explanations of more than just proper verbal language. Good, appropriate body language can be almost as important in this task, which is the only one that puts candidates face-to-face with the examiner.

Svend Nelson is a university lecturer and internet entrepreneur. He is director of UniRoute Limited, a Hong Kong based company with offices in Bangkok and London providing IELTS online preparation and other web-based courses for online university preparation . Svend lived and worked in various countries across Latin America, Europe and Asia before settling with his wife in Thailand.
12849  THE TECHNO CLUB [ TECHNOWORLDINC.COM ] / Technical Terms / Stock Exchange - Glossary of Terms for investors on: February 19, 2007, 10:13:50 AM
Stock Exchange - Glossary of Terms for investors

When a brokerage firm admits a client, an account must be opened in the name of the client. The account will reflect activities of the client such as the buying and selling of securities.

Account Statement
A statement that includes all transactions, positions and open orders and indicates the status of a client,s account with a brokerage firm.

Accumulated Dividend
A dividend due to stockholders of cumulative preferred stock that has not been paid to them. Until the dividend is paid, it is carried on the corporation,s books as a liability.
Authentication of a signature on a brokerage document to ensure it is valid and has been sanctioned by an authorized individual. Acknowledgment, for example, is needed when a client wishes to transfer an account from one broker to another.

Across The Board
Movement, up or down, in the stock market that affects nearly all stocks in the same direction. That is, nearly all stocks are gainers (or losers).

Active Market
An active market occurs when a security, or the exchange as a whole, experiences heavy trading volume. The spread between the securities bid and asked price is usually narrower in an active market than in an inactive market.

"Agent" means a person appointed by a member of a Stock Exchange to act on his behalf for the purposes recognized by a Stock Exchange and includes a sub broker or head of a branch office. Source: Members Agents and Traders (Eligibility Standards) Rules, 2001

Annual Report
Formal financial statements, the Auditors' Report, together with the Directors' Report issued by a company. These financial statements are usually prepared at the close of the company's financial year.

The simultanceous purchase and sale of the same security on different stock exchanges at prices which yield a profit.

What the company owns and various debts owing to it.
Balance Sheet
The Balance Sheet is a statement of the Company's financial position at a specific date.
An investor who anticipates for a decline in stock prices.

Bear Market
A market in which stock prices are declining in general. A serious decline is called a depression. A short decline in a generally rising market is looked upon as a technical correction.

Bid and Asked
The bid is the highest price anyone has offered to pay for a security at a given time; the asked is the lowest price anyone has offered to accept for a security at a given time.

Blue Chip
A large well-established company with a history of profitable operation.

Fixed-income securities, which entitle the holder to a pre-determined return during their life and repayment of principle at maturity.

Book Closing
The closure of books by a company to determine the shareholders' rights to receive bonus, dividend, rights, etc. No transfers are recorded during this period.

Denotes greater activity on the stock exchange.

An investor who anticipates for a rise in stock prices.

Bull Market
A market in which stock prices are rising in general. If the market is recovering from a deep decline, the early stage of the up trend is called an up reversal, turnaround, rally or recovery.
Buying Power
The Rupees amount available to purchase securities on margin. The amount is calculated by adding the cash held in the brokerage accounts and the amount that could be spent if securities were fully margined to their limit. If an investor uses their buying power, they are purchasing securities on credit.

Capital Adequacy
"Capital Adequacy" means Trading Limits assigned to the members equivalent to 25 times of their respective certified Net Capital balance. Source: Margin Trading Regulations

Capital gain or Capital loss
Profit or loss from the sale of a capital asset, including securities.

Capital Gain Tax
Tax payable on profit arising from appreciation in value of investment, realized at the time of selling or maturity of investment.

Carry-over Trades
Equity repurchase transactions, better known, as "Badla"; are an established form of transactions used in the stock market for temporary financing of trades by speculators and jobbers.

Settlement or clearance of accounts in stock exchanges.

Securities or other properties pldged by a borrower to secure the repayment of a loan.

The fees payable by a client to the sharebroker for buying or selling securities on his behalf.
Consumer Price Index (CPI)
A measure of price changes in consumer goods also known as the "cost of living index." Some CPI components are food, housing costs and transportation.

A statement sent to a client by the stockbroker, giving details of securities purchased or sold.
A bond, debenture, or preferred share that may be exchanged by the owner for common stock or other security, usually of the same company, in accordance with the terms of the issue.

To have control of supply of a security by buying on such large scale that the entire market is affected. It strongly influences the market prices in a way that the person with the corner may make undue profit or forces other with a short position to cover at a loss.

The term implies taht the buyer is entitled to the dividend currently declared.

Shares having the right to receive the upcoming rights issues offered by the company.

Debt-to-Equity Ratio
The ratio of a company's securities with fixed charges to the company's common stock equity. To calculate, divide the total amount of preferred stock and bonds by the amount of common stock equity. a) In the case of liquidation, the ratio indicates the extent owner's equity can cover creditors' claims. It is calculated by dividing total liabilities by total shareholders' equity. b) A ratio that is used to measure leverage. Leverage is the use of borrowed money to increase the return on owners' equity. To calculate, divide the total amount of long term debt by the total amount of shareholders' equity.

Director updated
An individual elected by corporate shareholders to serve on that corporation,s Board of Directors. The Board of Directors decide when dividends will be paid, appoint the corporation,s president, vice president and all other officers.

That part of a company's profits which is distributed among shareholders, usually expressed in rupee per share or percentage to paid up capital. It could be in the form of cash or stock (Bonus Share).

Earnings per share (EPS)
A profitability indicator calculated by dividing the net after tax earnings available to common stockholders during a period by the average number of shares outstanding at the end of that period.

The owners' interest in a company's capital, usually referred to as ordinary shares.

A synonym for without dividend. The buyer of a stock selling ex-divident does not receive the recently declared dividend.

Exposure means at any point in time, scrip-wise cumulative net unsettled amount of purchases and sales, added together, of a member, under Ready Counter.

Face value
The value of a security that appears on the face of the certificate unless the value is otherwise specified by the issuing company. It is also termed as par value.

The occasion when a company's shares are offered on the stock market for the first time.

Fund managers
A company, which invests and manages investors' money, with the aim of maximizing capital growth.

To bet on uncertain outcome.

Initial Public Offering (IPO)
The offering of equity shares of a company to the general public for the first time.

Insider Trading
Insider trading normally occurs when an insider, that is, a director, an officer, a banker or a favored customer, due to his access to special information about the company's affairs, which has not been made available to the market influence the value of shares to his advantage.
To commit (money) in order to earn a financial return.

Investment company
A company, which issues shares and uses its capital to buy securities and shares in other companies.

An individual whose principal objective in the purchase of a security is regular dividend income, safety of the original investment and, if possible, capital appreciation.

Letter of Renunciation
Usually sent with the letter of right. A shareholder may renounce the shares offered in favour of some other individuals. The shareholder transfers the right to take up the shares offeed to him.

Letter of Right
A letter sent by a company to shareholders offering them the right to subscribe in a specified number of shares.

What the company owes to its shareholders and creditrs.

Listed company
A company whose securities are admitted for listing on a stock exchange.

Market capitalization
The total value of a company's equity capital at the current market price.

Market maker
A person who commits itself to always being ready to deal in a range of securities for his own account taking temporary position.

Market price
In case of a security, market price is usually considered the last reported price at which the security is sold.

Net change
The change in the price of a security between the closing price on one day and the closing price on the following day on whichthe stock is traded. In case of a stock that is entitled to dividend one day but is traded ex-dividend the next, the dividend is considered in computing the change.

A person or company holding securities on behalf of others, but who is not the owner of such securities.

Odd Lot
"Odd Lot" means any lesser quantity of shares or stock than the marketable lot is called Odd Lot. Source: Clearing House Procedural Manual

An amount of stock less than the established unit of trading.

The right (but not the obligation) to buy or sell securities at a fixed price within a specified period.

Ordinary shares
The most common form of shares, which entitle the owners to jointly own the company. Holders may receive dividends depending on profitability of the company and recommendation of directors.

P/E Ratio
The relationship between a stock's price and its earnings per share. It is calculated by dividing the stock's price per share by earnings per share for a twelve month period. For instance, a stock selling for Rs.25 a share and earning Rs.5 a share is said to be selling at a P/E ratio of 5. The ratio, also known as the "multiple", gives an investor an approximation of how much they are paying for a corporation's earning power. Low P/E stocks are usually in mature industries. They may be blue chip or out of favor companies. In either case, their growth potential is limited. Companies with high P/E ratios are usually up-and-comers that are fast growing. These companies are riskier investments.

Payment Date
Date on which declared stock dividend or bond interest is paid to holders of record.
Payout Ratio
The percentage of a corporation's earnings that are paid to shareholders as dividends. For example, a corporation that pays a R.s.12 dividend out of every R.s.1.00 of earnings has a payout ratio of 12%.
A collection of investments.

Price Change
The difference in a security,s price at the close of a trading session as compared to its previous session,s closing price. In the case of an average (or index), all of its components price changes are taken into account.

Price/earning ratio (P/E ratio)
The P/E ratio is a measure of the level of confidence (rightly or wrongly) investors have in a company. It is calculated by dividing the current share price by the last published earnings per share.

Price/Earnings Ratio (P/E)
The relationship between a stock,s price and its earnings per share. It is calculated by dividing the stock,s price per share by earnings per share for a twelve month period. For instance, a stock selling for RS.25 a share and earning RS.5 a share is said to be selling at a P/E ratio of 5. The ratio, also known as the "multiple", gives an investor an approximation of how much they are paying for a corporation,s earning power. Low P/E stocks are usually in mature industries. They may be blue chip or out of favor companies. In either case, their growth potential is limited. Companies with high P/E ratios (over 20) are usually up-and-comers that are fast growing. These companies are riskier investments. See: Price Range. The high and low price that a security traded at during a designated period. In annual reports, a corporation will show the price range for its fiscal year. In daily newspapers, the period is a rolling 52 weeks.

Primary Market
Where a company issues new shares, either for the first time, or at the time of issuing additional securities.

Principal Amount
The face value of a bond, or other obligation, that is required to be paid to the holder at maturity. 

Private Limited Company
A company that is not a public company and which is not allowed to offer its shares to the general public.

Conversion of a state-owned company to a public limited company (plc) status.

An amount received from selling a security after commissions are deducted.

Profit & Loss Account
A financial statement which shows the amount of a company has earned during the period.

Profit Taking
Selling securities that have appreciated in value since purchase, to realize the profit. In a rising market, profit taking temporarily pushes down prices. 

A person who represents the shareholder, on the basis of written authorization, in the annual meeting of a company. A proxy does not have the right to speak, though he may vote on behalf of the shareholder. Proxy is also used to refer to the instrument by which the shareholder authorizes another individual, who may not be a shareholder, to so represent him.
Public Limited Company (plc)
A company whose shares are offered to the general public and trade freely on the open market and whose share capital is not less than a statutory minimum.

Retained Earnings
Profits earned and retained in the business to meet operating expenses or of acquiring additional assets or for any other purpose.

rights Issue
The issue of additional shares to existing shareholders when companies want to raise more capital.

A broad term for shares, corporate bonds or any other instrument of investment in the capital market.

Once a trade has been executed, the settlement process transfers stock from seller to buyer and arranges the corresponding exchange of money between buyer and seller.

Short covering
Buying stock to return stock previosly borrwed to make delivery on a short sale.

Short sale
It occures when a person sells shares that he does not own. A short sale is usually made in the hope that a subsequent market decline will enable the seller to 'cover his position' at a profit, that is, to buy at a later date and at a lower price the shares he needs to deliver against his original short sale.

To assume a business risk in hope of gain, especially to buy or sell in expectation of profit from market fluctuations.

The division of shares of a large denomination into shares of smaller denominations.

The difference between the bid and offer price of a market maker.

Securities that represent an ownership interest in a company. If the company has also issued preferred stock, both common and preferred having ownership rights, but the preferred stock normally has prior alaim on dividends and in the event of liquidation on assets.

Stock dividend
A dividend paid in securities rather than cash.

Stock Market
The market place where shares of public listed companies are bought and sold.

A member of the stock exchange who deals in shares for clients and advises on investment decisions.

Unit trust
An open-ended mutual fund that invests funds in securities and issues units for sale to the public. It can repurchase these units at any time.

Also known as return. The dividend or interest paid by a company expressed as a percentage of the current price or, if you own the security, of the price you originally paid. The return on stock is calculated by dividing the total of dividend paid in the preceding 12 months by the current market price.

Yield Advantage
When an investor buys a corporation's convertible security instead of its common stock, the yield advantage is the additional amount of return an investor can earn. For example, if XYZ Corporation's convertible security yields 12% and XYZ common share yields 7%, the yield advantage is 5%.
12850  THE TECHNO CLUB [ TECHNOWORLDINC.COM ] / Online Jobs / Re: MakeMoney with Google AdSense: Increate ROI on: February 19, 2007, 10:08:06 AM
nice article
12851  THE TECHNO CLUB [ TECHNOWORLDINC.COM ] / Technical Terms / CRM on: February 18, 2007, 11:51:13 PM
Short for Customer Relationship Management. CRM is a set of methodologies, software, and usually Internet capabilities that help an enterprise manage customer relationships in an organized way. It includes all business processes in sales, marketing, and service that touch the customer. For example, an enterprise might build a database about its customers that describes relationships in sufficient detail so that management, salespeople, people providing service, and even the customer can access information, match customer needs with product plans and offerings, remind customers of service requirements, know what other products a customer has purchased, and so on.

Related terms: CRM software, contact management, call centers, enterprise CRM software
12852  THE TECHNO CLUB [ TECHNOWORLDINC.COM ] / Technical Terms / Credit Card Processing on: February 18, 2007, 11:48:52 PM
There are several factors to consider when setting up a credit card processing system for a new retail or internet business. The first step is to set up a merchant account via a merchant account service. Such services act as intermediaries between you and the credit card companies. If you are a retail business, you will need to purchase a processing terminal through which credit cards will be physically swiped. Such terminals can cost anywhere from $100-$1000, and can be purchased via merchant account services or else independently. Finally, you will need to be sure that your POS (Point of Sale) system is properly set up to interact with the credit card terminal. User manuals or else your merchant account service can usually help with this.

Related terms: point of sale systems, merchant accounts
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